Ecma International Home
contact us
Ecma Site Map


Technical Report TR/53
Handling of bi-directional Texts

2nd edition (June 1992)

This Ecma Technical Report specifies technical means to handle bi-directional text in character-imaging devices in case of:

  • texts in a single script of which specific parts need to be presented in an opposite direction (for example, numbers in Arabic or Hebrew);
  • texts in different scripts presented in opposite directions (like Latin and Arabic or Latin and Hebrew);
  • texts presented with a horizontal line orientation and a top-to-bottom line progression.

Other presentation directions may be the subject of further studies.

The following file can be freely downloaded:

File name Size (Bytes) Content
TR-053.pdf 96 531    Acrobat (r) PDF file

The previous replaced "historical" edition of this Technical Report is available here.

Back Back





only search Ecma International

Level A conformance icon, 

          W3C-WAI Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0